What Kind of Pan-Africanist Are You?


Pan-Africanists world-wide are most often striving to unify and liberate Africa and African people

What is often missing is a narrative that outlines what some Pan-Africanists are fighting for and how they are going to achieve their objective.  The fight against our oppression sometimes creates a scenario where some Pan-Africanists find themselves consistently fighting against everything that they don’t believe in and consequently  also fighting against being part of an organization or collective understanding and adhering to an ideologically framework and most importantly against fellow Pan-Africanists.

Ideology is a set of ideas that guide our behaviors and actions and often if our ideology is created and reinforced by the capitalist system we will use this ideology to guide our work in and out of the Pan-African movement.  As we move through our Pan-African lives we cannot help but recognize the destructive behavior that also exists inside of the movement.  How can we justify disrespecting one another or exploiting ourselves, our partners and our community if we claim to be a Pan-Africanist?  How is it possible that a movement that is pushing unity has more sects within it than many African countries have ethnic divides?  Are we truly on the road to building Pan-Africanism or are we just part of the larger capitalist system that uses ideology to divide and conquer our people?

The answer to these and many questions cannot be answered in a single blog post but they can raise some valuable points about the way forward.  We contend that it is important as Pan-Africanists to:

  • Recognize that oppression impacts us all in various forms and we often are unaware of how deeply we are impacted by our inability to shake the yoke of oppression
  • We must not allow our class positions to dictate how we engage with our comrades and our community.  Too often we believe that because we have read a few books or have a PhD that somehow we are more qualified to “lead” the people to “freedom” or mind and body. This thinking is not only individualistic but also reinforces the notion that because we have access to resources we are somehow more intelligent than the people and we must be the savior of African people.
  • We must immediately halt our internal fight for who is the hardest, most revolutionary and most righteous Pan-Africanist.  These struggles not only divide the movement but it makes it easy on our enemy to continue to organize to exploit our need to be the supreme Pan-Africanist.  Who qualifies any of us to be more Pan-African than the next?  Is it our place of birth, is it the number of African print clothes we have in our closest, it is our African names, is it how many times we have read Kwame Nkrumah or Thomas Sankara, is it our pouring of libation, is it our perceived dedication to the people,  is it how many people viewed our most recent video or liked our cool saying on facebook What makes any of us more Pan-African than the next?  This is not a popularity contest but rather it is a fight for our lives!!!!!

How do we move forward is what we need to address as Pan-African scholars and activists and we would like to suggest a few things:

  • We must individually and collectively check our ego at the door and allow for positive criticism to be our guide towards changing our behavior.  If we are not able to accept positive criticism about our behavior and principles then we are in the wrong movement.
  • We must be part of organizations that are pushing Pan-Africanism. History has proven that the individual is never as successful as the group and it is only in an organization of other Pan-Africanists that we will begin to be challenged about some of our backward and reactionary behavior!!  We must not surround ourselves with people who will not challenge our negative behavior but with people who will pull us up when we have gone astray and will be our role models for a positive and productive model of non-capitalist behavior.
  • When we disagree with one another ideologically we must never use the enemy’s tactics of belittling our comrades and or personally attacking them.  This ultimately yields us nothing and takes our movement backward instead of forward.
  • We must be comfortable with understanding the evolution of our ideological framing and be patient with those of us around us who we believe are less ideologically sound or are “lost”.  We are all on an ideological journey one that never stops and the minute we believe that we have arrived ideologically that is the moment that we have lost the battle.

At the end of the day we must ask ourselves are we Pan-Africanists because we want the fortune and fame or because we work for our people!!!

Forward Ever

Edem & Mjiba




(Credit: http://www.aaprp-intl.org/)


The flaw in the pan-Africanist agenda is that Africanness is taken as a given which should be obvious to all Africans both on the continent in the diaspora; thus the pan-Africanist cause puts the cart before the horse! The deployment of African in the pan-Africanist discourse is ahistorical and needs to be remedied if the pan-Africanist cause is to succeed. The concept Africa and African is neither a given nor static. It is a living concept which ought to be critically interrogated across time and space and propagated.

The discourse on Pan-Africanism is premised on the conception that Africans both in the motherland and the in the Diaspora are ‘one people’. This view is primarily racial based on skin colour hence the quick distinction between sub-Saharan Africa of the ‘Blacks’ and North Africa of the Arabs.

The bitter truth is that is that Africans have never perceived themselves as one people and never acted as such. This is especially evident in the slave trade where it was usually ‘outsiders’ caught in wars and raids who were the ones that were sold. It is hard to find any reference in traditional discourse preceding the slave trade and colonialism that makes reference to the people as Africans. Scholarly studies show that ‘Africa’ is of Punic (Carthaginian) origin i.e. by the Phoenicians. It means corn. The geographic space known as Africa was the limited geographic region along the shores of present-day Tunisia and Libya known to the Phoenicians, Romans and Arabs.

Historically, identity construction among ‘Africans’ has been primarily at the family, lineage or village level. Even the concept of an ethnic identity is a latter day development borne out the works of missionaries, educated elite and business people. The growth of states and empires like the Asante Empire led to the inclusion of others but those included still perceived themselves not for example as Asante because they belonged to the Asante Empire but as Anlo or Akwamu.

It is important to recognise as W. E. B du Bois one of the foremost pan-Africanist thinkers pointed out, ‘The idea of one Africa to unite the thought and ideals of all native peoples of the dark continent belongs to the twentieth century and stems naturally from the West Indies, and the United States…. where various groups of Africans, quite separate in origin, became so united in experience and so exposed to the impact on new cultures that they began to think of Africa as one idea and one land’ (The World and Africa, p7).

There  assumption  that  all  black  people  in  and  outside  continental  Africa have  accepted  their  Africanness  and  thus  are  happy  to  be  called  Africans is highly questionable. As Achebe points out race has never been a distinguishing category in Africa. While race might matter to those in the Diaspora because of their peculiar experience, to most Africans on the continent ethnicity is the primary marker.

Thus the usual cry bemoaning Africans’ lack of unity in development ignores the important point that identities are socially constructed and African is one such identity that ought to be consciously constructed. One might ask if those on Spanish and Portuguese islands of  … in what is geographically Africa are Africans. Of course not!

While African unity is useful in the advancement of Africa, first and foremost the concept of Africa and Africaness has to be sold to the people to achieve this noble dream. What are the building blocks of this Africanness? Racial consciousness once again is neither a given nor static. It is high time we interrogated this concept if the ideals of pan-Africanism are to be realised. Common racial background, slavery and colonial background are not enough because even within these we can find distinctions!

Forward Ever Until Next Time…………

The African Union, The African Diaspora and Silence!!!!!!

Black Lives Matter

(Credit: http://www.salon.com/2016/07/11/solidarity_with_black_lives_matter_asian_americans_speaking_out_against_police_brutality/?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=socialflow)

The African Union’s (AU) silence – per official press release on its website – on the loss of African people’s lives in the United States at the hands of the police officers is deafening! Ironically, on its website is boldly declared ‘2016: African Year of Human Rights’. The palpable silence of the AU on these incidents is distressing!

What accounts for this silence? Could it be that the AU is unaware of these incidents or the African Diaspora does not matter? The former is unlikely considering the wide coverage given these incidents in the mainstream media as well as social media. The latter too is difficult to believe considering that the AU not too long ago recognised the African Diaspora as its sixth region after West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, North Africa and Southern Africa.

The amendment of the Constitutive Act of the African Union in 2003 to ‘invite and encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our Continent, in the building of the African Union’ (Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union, Article 3 (q)) was a signal change in the African Union’s attitude to the Diaspora as an integral part of the continent. This was a welcome return to the original vision of Pan-Africanism – the liberation and unification of Africans not only at home but also abroad. Yet, attitude seems not to have been translated into actions.

The silence of the AU on incidents such as the killings of Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Eric Garner, Darrian Hunt, Alton Sterling and Philando Castile is not only disturbing but telling of the commitment of the AU to the sixth region. To confirm this view we just have to look at the silence around the killings, imprisonment and torture of Africans fighting for independence from Indonesia in West Papua.

Article 4 (o) and  of the Constitutive Act of the African Union (2000) calls for ‘respect for the sanctity of human life, condemnation and rejection of impunity and political assassination, acts of terrorism and subversive activities ’ yet it is silent on these acts against Africans in the Diaspora.

Could it also be that the AU is silent on these incidents because they are ‘internal affairs’ of sovereign states? But on the 8th of July, 2016 the chairperson of the AU Commission, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma released the following statement about the violence in the Sudan (http://www.au.int/en/pressreleases/31077/chairperson-au-commission-condemns-fighting-juba-8-july-2016); yet, just two days prior to this statement Philando Castile was brutally murdered by the police in front of his fiancée (who  livestreamed the murder on Facebook) and 4-year old daughter.  Or is it because Sudan is African state?

In any case the AU is not known to shy away from international issues. In fact, on 5th of July 2016, on the day Alton Sterling was shot, the chairperson of the AU Commission issued a press release condemning the suicide attack in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on 4th of July 2016 (http://au.int/en/pressreleases/31069/african-union-denounces-suicide-attacks-kingdom-saudi-arabia-monday-4-july-2016). What makes an issue important enough for the African Union to comment or take a position? As the sixth region is the African Disapora not supposed to be given if not equal attention at least some interest in the affairs of its citizens just like Africans on the continent.

Or is the AU silent on these incidents because it is fearful of losing ‘dead aid’ from these countries? Some African leaders rightly so have been berated for the lack of respect for the rights of its citizens and we applauded the support for the respect for human rights everywhere. It is in the same vein the AU has to speak up and take concrete measures in the defence of the African family in the Diaspora.

It is important to remember the role of the African Diaspora in the liberation of the continent. A major catalyst in the independence of African states from European imperialism was the Pan-African movement spearheaded by Africans in the
Diaspora. The works of the likes of Sylvester Williams from Trinidad, Marcus  and Amy Garvey from Jamaica, WEB du Bois from the US and George Padmore from Trinidad were instrumental in shaping the thoughts and actions of Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Julius Nyerere and other nationalist leaders. It was at the 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress attended by both Diasporan Africans like Dubois and Padmore and Continental Africans such as Nkrumah, Kenyatta, and Kamuzu Banda (independence leaders of Ghana, Kenya and Malawi respectively) that the bold claim to independence from European imperialism in Africa was made.  In addition, the anti-apartheid movement gained traction outside of South Africa partly because of the work done in the Diaspora.

For far too long the African has been denigrated because of his African identity. Whatever the reasons for the AU’s silence on the wanton abuse of the rights of Diasporan Africans, it is important to recognise that the degrading of any African is the degrading of all Africans. What is the relevance of Pan-Africanism in the 21st century if institutions set up to promote Pan-Africanism cannot stand up for the African family? The independence of African states is meaningless unless it is translated into the freedom and justice for all Africans everywhere!

The AU as an institution whose ideological basis is Pan-Africanism, it should never lose sight of the aims of the founders – dignity for Africans everywhere! It is high time the AU seriously recalled the ‘heroic struggles waged by our peoples and our countries for …, human dignity [emphasis ours]’ as it says it the preamble to the Constitutive Act of the African Union. It is obliged to:

‘Express mutual support and solidarity between Africans on the Continent and in the Diaspora in circumstances of violation of human and peoples’ rights’;

‘Encourage and support the adoption and implementation, in different Diaspora countries, of policies that will facilitate the elimination of racism and the promotion of equality among races’ (Declaration of the Global African Diaspora Summit, 2012, B (r) and A (p) respectively).

Please check out a video about the impact of police violence on African women:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jMV5_lyYR6Y

Pan-Africanism must include Africans on the continent and diaspora.  Until next time!!!!


Sankofa: The Return of the Diaspora

Sankofa is a staple in the African community both at home and abroad.  It is a symbol that calls on all African people to return to their roots.  Roots is often used by many people in different ways.  It is used as a way to call youth back to their communities, it is used to promote dedication to community and nation, it is used to prompt Africans not working for their people to work for the people.  For us Sankofa goes beyond the mere call to return to our roots.  It is political, economic, social and cultural linkages between African families that have been separated by time and space.

Sankofa is not a fashion statement nor it is something that should be worn around your neck to show how conscious you are.  Sankofa is a way of life, it can be interpreted as a philosophy to embrace our need for oneness as a people, it is the heart beat of the Pan-African movement and it should be the center of the relationship between Africans in the Diaspora and at home.

We contend that we must use Sankofa to build Africa from the ground up through Mass Based Participation.  This we recognize will happen both on the continent and in the Diaspora wherever African people find themselves.  The Diasporian African community must begin to connect in concrete ideological and practical ways to the African continent to see any real change.  We can march, lobby for laws to protect us and the environment in our communities, but this only addresses a symptom of the larger problem of marginalized and abused Africans everywhere.  Africans everywhere are demonized and abused because there is no real African voice to stand up to the abusers.

The African Union’s recognition of the African Diaspora as its 6th region is a positive act but very little has been done to concretise this pronouncement.  It is interesting to know that the 2nd aspiration of the AU Agenda 2063 which seeks to  create, “An integrated continent, politically united and based on the ideals of Pan-Africanism and the vision of Africa’s Renaissance” is silent on the integration of the Diaspora with the continent.

Every African everywhere must commit to achieving Pan-Africanism: The Total Liberation and Unification of Africa.  As advocates of a Mass Based Approach to effective realization of Pan-Africanism, we argue that an integration of the Diaspora and the continent is a must!  Africans everywhere are demonized and abused because there is no real African voice to stand up to the abusers.

You may ask why is it even important for an African in Haiti, the United States, Brazil or England to fight for the liberation and unification of Africa?  Well we would like to offer some concrete issues that are impacting our people that would be solved with a unified Africa.

When we say a unified Africa we mean unified at the local, national and international level. We recognize that would mean having a unified military presence, a common currency, a continent wide transportation and communication system, integrated economies, intercontinental and Diasporan trading and an intense and positive relationship with the African Diaspora.

Africa’s GDP is approximately $2.320 trillion dollars and if you combine that with that of the $1.1 trillion dollars of buying power of Africans in the United States and add Brasil’s GDP of $1.799 trillion we would have over $4 trillion to facilitate internal trade.  These numbers do not include the amount of financial resources that are being lost through exporting raw materials out of the continent.  For example in Azania, South Africa they loose approximately $122 Billion yearly.  What type of power would we have if we could trade internally, dictate our export values and invest in both Continental and Diasporian development?   The potential of this African market is enormous.

Despite these great figures we must critically analyse how this impacts Africans in the Diaspora in a concrete way?  Right now our people in the Diaspora are struggling to survive literally!!  Lets take a look at some case studies:

  1. Brasil has the largest population of Africans in the Diaspora with over 51% of the population either “Black or Brown” yet if you are an African in Brasil your White counterparts make double what you make in salary.  Much of the poverty is concentrated in the rural area in Brasil not much different than the African continent.  As the worlds largest coffee and sugarcane producers it seems like perhaps the people should not be struggling to make a living.  So how will Pan-Africanism benefit the African in Brasil?  First off we must recognize that with approximately 203 million people in Brazil and over half of them being African the people of Brasil are absolutely essential to achieve Pan-Africanism. Without them we will not be successful in our quest!!! However, if achieved Pan-Africanism will advocate for Africans in Brasil and ensure that they have a positive relationship to the mode of production.
  2. Haiti the first African nation that gained independence in 1804-this historical precedent should never be forgotten or over looked.  Even with this legacy guiding their development Haitians are suffering.   Five (5) years after the earth quake that killed over 200, 000 people and injured another 300,000 Haitians  are still suffering economically, politically and socially.  The people of Haiti our African sisters and brothers are dying of starvation, disease, and are in a world of trouble if another earth quake hits in their current position.  If Pan-Africanism was a reality immediately after the earth quake in 2010, a unified Africa could have sent money to Haiti to rebuild after the quake.  We could have sent food, water, shelter and human power to help re-build Haiti.  We could have sent doctors and medication to tend to the sick and we could have immediately transported our sisters and brothers from Haiti and housed them at home in Africa to allow for the re-construction work to begin.  Instead we watched on the television while our sisters are brothers died without any real concrete way to help them!!  That day and the days that proceeded the earthquake we not only watched our sisters and brothers die but we also died! Check out a picture of a sister and her family today:

Haiti Family


It is important that we recognize our power as African people and not succumb to division and accept a powerless position.   As Africans we are better placed to control world affairs.  We have power in land, we have power in spirit, we have power in our soul, we have power in our people and we must use those powers to fight for a liberated and unified Africa that will benefit all African people!!

Forward Ever,

Edem and Mjiba

The Forward March Towards Pan-Africanism: Mass Based Participation

Africa and African people all over the world seem to be trapped in an abyss of police violence, corruption, disease, poverty, unemployment, underemployment, malnutrition, land grabbing, theft of resources, internal and external power struggles, rape, death and much more.   It is like the majority of our people are stuck in quicksand, some struggling to get out but others seem to have resigned themselves to slowly sinking and dying a long horrible and painful death.

Many would argue that there are scores of Africans who are not plagued with any of these major issues.  Some are considered to be “rich” or have a lot of money or property and others are “so called” middle class, who own houses, own cars and are all-round successful and happy according to “Western” standards.  Despite the fact that this small percentage of the overall population is “succeeding” today, we must ask, “how has their individual success positively benefited all African people?”

Are we as African people destined to be stuck in quicksand, trapped by our daily reality?  Do we believe that our individual contribution will make no difference?  We don’t think so!!  We must today at this very moment decide that we will fight back to live!! We have to choose to live, we have to all decide that if we don’t fight back we will be forsaking our ancestors’ sacrifice; we must choose today to fight because if we don’t we will hand our children over to imminent death.

We believe that we must abandon the notion that anyone else is going to save us and we must all rise up and participate and contribute to the Pan-African Movement in our local, national, continental and international communities.  As Marcus Garvey rightly pointed out, “Lagging behind in the van of civilization will not prove our higher abilities. Being subservient to the will and caprice of progressive races will not prove anything superior in us. Being satisfied to drink of the dregs from the cup of human progress will not demonstrate our fitness as people to exist alongside of others, but when of our own initiative we strike out to build industries, governments, and ultimately empires, then only then will we as a race prove to our Creator and to man in general that we are fit to survive and capable of shaping our own destiny.”

What we need right now more than ever is Mass Based Participation in every corner of the world.  When we say Mass Based Participation we don’t mean – “democracy” – where a couple of times in every few years you let your voice be heard via voting in “elections”.  The rest of the time the elite make all the decisions that determine your ability to feed your family, control your labour, send your kids to school, seek health care, educate your children and the list goes on.

By Mass Based Participation we mean organised pressure groups from the community level to the international level that are actively involved in the daily governance of the people and their resources. These become the source and not the recipient of ideas that transform society. Instead of waiting for the token periodic elections, they are at the forefront of continuous monitoring and the implementation of these ideas.

We are of the view that the only way to combat the oppression and exploitation that is manifested in many ways including the paralysis that we referenced to which attacks us everywhere we are is to organize against the system everywhere.  African people all over the world must participate in organized civil society and revolutionary grassroots pressure organizations.  We must encourage the formation of large and small organisations that seek to change the status quo in Africa and wherever we find ourselves as African people.  We must use our communities as the stomping grounds for the work and the re-energising of the Pan-African Movement.

In this regard we would like to offer the following recommendations about how to push Pan-Africanism where you are today:

  1. Join or start Pan-African organizations: They should be mass-based in nature and form.  These organizations should have a clearly defined ideology (African based) that seeks to transform the status quo and change the worldview of African people.
  2. Form study Groups: The most important thing that we lack is ideological clarity and as such we must immediately move to form regular study groups that will study the works of great Pan-Africanists. The material can be written, oral, video’s or anything in between – whatever you do, start to challenge the dominant ideology of society.
  3. Participate in Positive Action Campaigns: These campaigns should demand economic, social and political strategic changes that will lead to revolutionary change. This could be through protests, strikes, and education campaigns.
  4. Create a local programme that meet the peoples’ basic human needs: This program must empower them to feed themselves and make them critically minded. These local programmes should however be tied to the larger Pan-African Movement which seeks to liberate and unify all African people.

As has been echoed elsewhere “No great event nor revolutionary change in society is possible without the active participation and support of the masses.” What we seek to re-emphasise is that the masses should be at the forefront of this change!

Forward to Pan-Africanism

Mjiba & Edem

Pan-Africanism: Where do we go from here? “The Bottom Up”

Pan-Africanism is generally defined as the unification and liberation of Africa and its people both at home and abroad.   Many great Africans have contributed to the Pan-African Movement (PAM). The likes of Sylvester Williams, Marcus Garvey, Amy Jacques Garvey, Catherine McKenzie the First Secretary of the Kingston Pan-African Association (PAA), George Padmore, Adelaide Casley Hayford a Pan-Africanist and Feminist from Sierra Leone, W.E.B. Dubois, Anna Julia Cooper and Anna Jones both members of the Executive of the 1900 Pan-African Conference, Shirley Graham Dubois, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, Walter Rodney, Kwame Ture all made significant contributions.

Despite their lifelong commitment to Pan-Africanism, some even giving their lives for the liberation of Africa and African people much of Africa is still exploited and her people are oppressed.  Can we attribute this to the ideas, the leaders, the tactics or something else altogether?  We can make the case that the ideas are still relevant in the 21st century.  However, we may want to take a critical look at the tactics being employed.

For the last 50 plus years most of the leaders of nation states have paid lip service to the Pan-African Vision.  The question remains if these so called independent nations are still dependent on foreign aid for development and political direction can they advocate for Pan-Africanism?  This dependence on imperialist nations plus the capitalist ideology of most African leaders have played a major role in the underdevelopment of the Pan-African Agenda.  We contend that to expect African nations to seriously push a Pan-African agenda in this climate of Neo-Colonialism is as laughable as the expectation that the lions will advocate for the rights of zebras.

It is not necessary to remind our readers that the African continent has the resources both human and environmental to meet all the basic needs of all Africans both in the Diaspora and on the Continent for generations to come.  Unfortunately, the very resources that could serve as the heartbeat of Africa are serving the needs of the Western World and a few self-centered leaders.   Kwame Nkrumah in his book Neo-Colonialism the Last Stage of Imperialism predicted that Neo (a new form)-Colonialism would ravish the continent like a wild bush fire.  The continent is currently in a fight to control the fire that is overtaking us!

Pan-Africanism has been left in the hands of a leadership that has shown no interest at all in advancing the Pan-Africanist cause.  The theft of key resources or as some like to say  trading (however we know that the power relationship between the Western world and Africa makes the trade relationship grossly lopsided) reduces the likelihood of governments, regional and international bodies from seriously developing and implementing a Pan-African Agenda.

It is our position that a new mass based approach from the bottom up is what is needed in the 21st century to achieve the unity and liberation of Africa and African people.  Historically, the masses of people have been part and parcel of all African liberation and Pan-African Movements.  The masses make up the membership of organizations like the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), Convention People’s Party (CPP), Black Panther Party (BPP), All-African People’s Revolutionary Party (A-APRP), Pan-African Women’s Organization, UDEMU (Guinea Bissau). It is these same masses that we call on take their rightful place in the Pan-African Movement.

The ideas and ideals of the Pan-African Movement is very much alive at the grassroots level and just needs a spark to ignite the flames.  This should take the form of political education and mobilization to advance the Pan-African Movement.  The focus should be on local communities, organizations and people to be the catalyst. Its only when the masses awaken to their real potential and demand what is theirs will freedom be realized.


Edem & Mjiba





Welcome to our Blog

Peace All:

We hope this email finds you well.  We would like to welcome you to our new and exciting blog.  Panafricanistthoughtandaction was created by two colleagues from the African world who are Research Fellows in the Institute of African Studies at the University of Ghana, Legon.

Dr. Mjiba Frehiwot and Dr. Edem Adotey are both Pan-African Scholar Activists who have degrees in African Studies from Howard University and the University of Ghana respectively.  The idea emerged for a joint venture once they realized that were aligned ideologically and professionally.

As Africans they represent two sides of the same coin-Dr. Adotey born in Ghana has a rich history of struggle and academic success. His organizing at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology has guided his belief that Pan-Africanism must begin with the masses of people and as such his research focuses  on border communities.  Dr. Frehiwot born in the Diaspora has a long history of organizing around the Pan-African movement and has incorporated her experience in the Diaspora and on the continent into her understanding of Pan-Africanism. As a scholar Dr. Frehiwot is committed to researching how Pan-Africanism can be used to address the challenges that Africans face throughout the world.

Again we welcome you to our blog and we look forward to hearing your comments and suggestions for articles!!

With Respect,

Edem & Mjiba